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National Education Policy
The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020), which was approved by the Cabinet of the Union of India on July 29, 2020, outlines the vision of India's new education system. The new policy replaces the previous National Education Policy, 1986. The policy is a comprehensive framework for primary education to higher education as well as vocational training in rural and urban areas of India. The policy aims to transform India's education system by 2030.
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Shortly after the policy was published, the government clarified that no one will be forced to study any particular language and that the medium of instruction will not be switched from English to any regional language. The language policy at NEP is a comprehensive guide and advisory in nature; and it is up to the states, institutions and schools to decide on the implementation. Education in India is a concurrent subject on the List.
The policy increases the importance of the mother tongue and regional languages; The medium of instruction through class 5 and preferably beyond should be in these languages. Sanskrit and foreign languages will also be emphasized. The policy also states that no language will be imposed on students.Shortly after the policy was published, the government clarified that the language policy in NEP is a broad guideline; and that it was up to the states, institutions and schools to decide the implementation. A more detailed language strategy would be published in the National Curriculum Framework in 2021. It was also noted that there were already institutions that had implemented this language policy 60 years ago, such as Sardar Patel Vidyalaya. Both the 1986 Education Policy and the 2009 Right to Education Act also promoted the use of the mother tongue as a counseling guide.The "10 + 2" structure will be replaced by the "5 + 3 + 3 + 4" model. This will be implemented as follows:
Foundational stage: it is subdivided into two parts: 3 years of preschool or anganwadi, followed by classes 1 and 2 in primary school. This will cover children ages 3 to 8. The focus of the studies will be on activity-based learning.Preparatory stage: Classes 3 to 5, which will cover the ages of 8-11 years. It will gradually introduce subjects such as speaking, reading, writing, physical education, languages, art, science and mathematics.
Intermediate stage: Classes 6 to 8, which include children between 11 and 14 years old. It will introduce students to the most abstract concepts in math, science, social studies, arts, and humanities.
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Secondary stage: Classes 9 to 12, covering the ages of 14 to 19 years. Again it is subdivided into two parts: classes 9 and 10 cover the first phase, while classes 11 and 12 cover the second phase. These 4 years of study are intended to instill multidisciplinary study, along with deep and critical thinking. Multiple theme options will be provided.The National Testing Agency will now have the additional responsibility of conducting entrance exams for college admissions across the country, in addition to JEE Main and NEET.
The policy proposes that institutes of higher education such as IITs make changes regarding the diversity of learning.
The policy proposes to internationalize education in India. Foreign universities can now establish campuses in India.
The fees of public and private universities will be fixed.
NEP 2020 features many policy changes when it comes to teachers and teacher education. To become a teacher, a 4-year Bachelor of Education will be the minimum requirement necessary by 2030. The teacher hiring process will also be strengthened and made transparent. The National Council for Teacher Training will develop a National Curricular Framework for Teacher Training by 2021 and National Professional Standards for Teachers by 2022. The policy aims to:
Ensure that all students at all levels of school education are taught by passionate, motivated, highly qualified, professionally trained, and well-equipped teachers.
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